Elemental Mapping for Characterizing of Thorium and Rare Earth Elements (REE) Bearing Minerals Using µXRF

I. G. Sukadana, I. W. Warmada, F. Pratiwi, A. Harijoko, T. B. Adimedha, A. W. Yogatama


Thorium (Th) anomaly was found in Adang Volcanic Complexes, Mamuju Area, West Sulawesi. This element is associated with high-value elements, the rare earth elements (REE). The minerals containing Th and REE were found in veins mineralization with various types of minerals which are very difficult to identify by conventional method. This research aims to understand the distribution and characterization of Th and REE in individual minerals, using Micro X-Ray Fluorescence (µXRF) analysis and completed by Advanced Minerals Identification and Characterization System (AMICS) software. The samples were collected from vein mineralization in Hulu Mamuju Sector. The contents of Th and REE that were analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) completed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are 11,550-74,480 ppm and 6,244.15-48,036.87 ppm, respectively. The minerals that contain Th and REE are britholite ((Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH), aeschynite (Ce,Ca,Fe,Th)(Ti,Nb)2 (O,OH)6, cerite (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3, monazite (REE,Th(PO4)), thorite (Th(SiO4)), andthorutite (Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6 associated with other minerals such as pyrite, actinolite, apatite, ilmenite, hematite, zircon and ankerite. Some minerals are uncommon minerals and are only characterized by detailed elemental mapping. The variety of minerals shows the condition of mineralization influenced by carbonatite magma and the hydrothermal process of mineralization


Thorium; REE; Micro XRF; AMICS; Mamuju

Full Text:



T. Unak, Prog. Nucl. Energy 37 (2000) 137.

H. Syaeful, K. S. Widana, I. G. Sukadana et al., Rare Earth Element Exploration in Indonesia, Proceedings of Sundaland Resources 2014 MGEI Annual Convention (2014) 205.

H. Syaeful, I. G. Sukadana and A. Sumaryanto, Atom Indones. 40 (2014) 33.

I. G. Sukadana, I. W. Warmada, A. Harijoko et al., The Application of Geostatistical Analysis on Radiometric Mapping Data to Recognized the Uranium and Thorium Anomaly in West Sulawesi, Indonesia, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 819 (2021) 012030.

I. G. Sukadana, H. Syaeful, F. D. Indrastomo et al., J. East China Univ. Technol. 39 (2016) 39.

P. H. Koch, C. Lund and J. Rosenkranz, Miner. Eng. 136 (2019) 99.

R. D. Barker, S. L. L. Barker, S. A. Wilson et al., Econ. Geol. 116 (2021) 803.

Q. Li, X. Hu, J. Hao et al., Chemosphere 249 (2020) 126143.

D. Savira, M. A. Gunawan, W. A. Draniswari et al., IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 830 (2021) 1.

S. Flude, M. Haschke and M. Storey, Mineral. Mag. 81 (2017) 923.

A. Guntoro, J. Asian Earth Sci. 17 (1999) 79.

B. Situmorang, The Formation of the Makassar Basin as Determined from Subsidence Curves, 11th Annual Convention Proceedings I (1982) 83.

S. C. Bergman, D. Q. Coffield, J. P. Talbot et al., Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 106 (1996) 391.

M. Polv, R. C. Maury, H. Bellon et al., Tectonophysics 272 (1997) 69.

Y. S. Yuwono, R. C. Maury, R. Soeria-Atmadja, et al., Tertiary and Quaternary Geodynamic Evolution of South Sulawesi: Constraints from the Study of Volcanic Units, Proceedings PIT XVI Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia (1987) 32.

M. A. Elburg and J. Foden, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63 (1999) 1155.

R. Hall, I. R. Cloke, S. Nur’aini et al., Pet. Geosci. 15 (2009) 147. (in Indonesian)

A. Maulana, K. Watanabe, A. Imai et al., Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 6 (2013) 50.

G. Shaban, Fadlin, B. Priadi et al., Indones. J. Geosci. 8 (2021) 39.

W. A. Draniswari, S. I. T. Kusuma, T. B. Adimedha et al., Eksplorium 41 (2020) 73. (in Indonesian)

H. Schmeling and N. Arndt, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 472 (2017) 95.

K. A. Smart, S. Tappe, A. Ishikawa et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 248 (2019) 311.

N. Ratman and S. Atmawainata, Peta Geologi Lembar Mamuju, Sulawesi, Bandung (1993).

I. G. Sukadana, A. Harijoko and L. D. Setidjadji, Eksplorium 36 (2015) 31. (in Indonesian)

F. D. Indrastomo, I. G. Sukadana, A. Saepuloh, et al., Eksplorium 36 (2016) 71. (in Indonesian)

I. G. Sukadana and H. Syaeful, Uranium Exploration in Sulawesi, Proceedings Seminar on MGEI 8th Annual Convention, Bandung (2016) 117.

W. Keyser, C. L. Ciobanu, N. J. Cook et al., Precambrian Res. 324 (2019) 170.

A. Cousin, V. Sautter, V. Payré et al., Icarus 288 (2017) 265.

P. M. Wróbel, S. Bała, M. Czyzycki et al., Talanta 162 (2017) 654.

W. Tefera, T. Liu, L. Lu et al., Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 193 (2020) 110245.

H. Samalehu, A. Idrus, N. I. Setiawan et al., Bull. Iraq Nat. Hist. Mus. 16 (2021) 301.

J. Dostal, Resources 6 (2017) 34.

R. L. Rudnick and S. Gao, Composition of the Continental Crust, 2nd ed., Elsevier Ltd. (2003).

S. S. Sun and W. F. McDonough, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 42 (1989) 313.

C. Wei, C. Xu, M. Deng et al., Ore Geol. Rev. 141 (2022) 104654.

P. Uher, M. Ondrejka, P. Bačík et al., Lithos 236-237 (2015) 212.

L. N. Warr, Mineral. Mag. 85 (2021) 291.

D. Hoehnel, W.U. Reimold, U. Altenberger et al. J. African Earth Sci. 138 (2018) 264.

W. A. Draniswari, F. Pratiwi, N. Ngadenin et al., Eksplorium 42 (2021) 77. (in Indonesian)

D. C. Noe, J. M. Hughes, A. N. Mariano et al., Zeitschrift für Krist. 206 (1993) 233.

J. C. M. de Hoog, M. J. van Bergen, Mineral. Mag. 61 (1997) 721.

I. G. Sukadana and H. Syaeful, Implication of Hydrothermal Process on Radioactive and Rare Earth Element Enrichment in Mamuju, West Sulawesi, Proceedings Joint Convetion Malang, HAGI - IAGI - IAFMI - IATMI (JCM 2017), Malang (2017).

I. Rosianna, E. D. Nugraha, H. Syaeful et al., Geoscience 10 (2020) 1.

K. Horie, Y. Tsutsumi, M. Cho et al., Phys. Chem. Earth 35 (2010) 284.

C. J. Allegre and G. Michard, The Geochemical Fractionation of Trace Elements, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland (1974).

J. Gittins and R. E. Harmer, J. African Earth Sci. 25 (1997) 159.

D. Genna, D. Gaboury, L. Moore et al., J. Geochem. Explor. 108 (2011) 131.

O. Terra, F. Audubert, N. Dacheux et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 354 (2006) 49.

R. Oberti, L. Ottolini, G. Della Ventura et al., Am. Mineral. 86 (2001) 1066.

L. Torró, C. Villanova, M. Castill et al., Mineral. Mag. 76 (2012) 393.

S. Y. Jiang, R. C. Wang, X. S. Xu et al., Phys. Chem. Earth 30 (2005) 1020.

T. H. DeFerreira, L. A. R. de Oliveira, L. E. D. Amorim et al., Geochem. 81 (2021) 125810.



Copyright (c) 2022 Atom Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.